The propeller is the most essential part of the drone. The drone propellers are the key to flying the drone, they have a direct physical impact on how the drone is going to fly in the air. These are the component which is often going to briar the most of the damage and thus require most of the investment. Therefore it is advised to choose the best suitable propeller for the machine. These spinning blades are the wings of your craft, the very part that creates the airflow that lifts your machine into the air. Drone propellers come in many different shapes and sizes – they all serve the same overall purpose, but the flight characteristics of each can be dramatically different.
There are 5 variables that must be considered while choosing the appropriate propellers for the machine:
The propeller size is one of the most important factors that should be kept into consideration because one wrong size can burn the whole drone down to ashes and one good size of the drone can make you win a race. The propellers come in various shapes and sizes, during the build of the drone we must calculate and analyze which size propellers suit best for the drone. because if the drone is large and the propellers are small then it will be unable to generate enough thrust to lift off the drone and if the propellers are large and the motors are small the motors will not be able to reach a particular RPM thus the load on motors will be very high and therefore the quadcopter will unable to take the flight. The size of the propeller is directly proportional to the amount of thrust it can produce i.e. large propellers can produce very high thrust but will consume more energy. The reason behind the high thrust generated by the large propeller is the surface is swept by them during the rotation.
The pitch is the angle at which the blade of the propeller is kept ie. Pitch has referred to the angle by which the blade is attached to the propeller. Pitch plays a vital role in the motion of the quadcopter. For example, if the pitch is of 2inches that means the propeller will move forward two inches in one total rotation of the propeller. If the pitch is high then also the surface area swept by the propeller will increase and thus the thrust will also increase.
3. Blade Configuration:
The number of blades within the propeller plays a vital role in generating thrust, generally, we use a three-bladed propeller in the racing quad because the three-blade propeller generates the optimum thrust with high kV motors. Similarly, with the hexa-copter or farming copters, we use two-bladed propellers because it is optimum for the flight.
4. Material (Durability):
There are two major materials by which the propellers are generally made
1. Carbon Nylon
2. Carbon Fiber
There is a lot of difference between material carbon nylon are inexpensive once but at the same time they consume lots of battery and thus the flight time decrease whereas the carbon fiber propellers are very expensive and can increase the flight time and stability of the drone.
A single-blade propeller would be the most efficient – if the vibration could be tolerated. So, to get an acceptable level of balance with much less vibration, a two-bladed propeller, practically speaking, is the most efficient.